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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Coronal observations of CMEs
Author: Schwenn, R
Raymond, JC
Alexander, D
Ciaravella, A
Gopalswamy, N
Howard, R
Hudson, H
Kaufmann, P
Klassen, A
Maia, D
Munoz-Martinez, G
Pick, M
Reiner, M
Srivastava, N
Tripathi, D
Vourlidas, A
Wang, YM
Zhang, J
Abstract: CMEs have been observed for over 30 years with a wide variety of instruments. It is now possible to derive detailed and quantitative information on CME morphology, velocity, acceleration and mass. Flares associated with CMEs are observed in X-rays, and several different radio signatures are also seen. Optical and UV spectra of CMEs both on the disk and at the limb provide velocities along the line of sight and diagnostics for temperature, density and composition. From the vast quantity of data we attempt to synthesize the current state of knowledge of the properties of CMEs, along with some specific observed characteristics that illuminate the physical processes occurring during CME eruption. These include the common three-part structures of CMEs, which is generally attributed to compressed material at the leading edge, a low-density magnetic bubble and dense prominence gas. Signatures of shock waves are seen, but the location of these shocks relative to the other structures and the occurrence rate at the heights where Solar Energetic Particles are produced remains controversial. The relationships among CMEs, Moreton waves, EIT waves, and EUV dimming are also cloudy. The close connection between CMEs and flares suggests that magnetic reconnection plays an important role in CME eruption and evolution. We discuss the evidence for reconnection in current sheets from white-light, X-ray, radio and UV observations. Finally, we summarize the requirements for future instrumentation that might answer the outstanding questions and the opportunities that new space-based and ground-based observatories will provide in the future.
Subject: solar corona
eruptive prominences
coronal mass ejections (CMEs)
solar wind
solarmagnetic field
magnetic reconnection
interplanetary shock waves
space weather
solar energetic particles (SEPs)
radio bursts
Country: Holanda
Editor: Springer
Citation: Space Science Reviews. Springer, v. 123, n. 41699, n. 127, n. 176, 2006.
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1007/s11214-006-9016-y
Date Issue: 2006
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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